Here is a glossary of terms


Behaviour Change Communication (BCC)

An approach commonly used within Communication for Development (C4D). It is the strategic use of communication to promote positive and safe behaviours. BCC uses practices such as face-to-face dialogue with individuals to inform, motivate, plan and solve problems to promote and sustain behavioural change.

Behaviour change journey

Desired behaviour change should be informed by a behavioural analysis, which considers the underlying social, cultural and economic causes of current behaviour. A behaviour analysis also considers what makes the desired behaviour change feasible, the benefits upon adoption, the capacity of the individual to practice the behaviour and if they are motivated to practice the behaviour. This can be assessed through consultations, focus group discussions, interviews and community meetings.

Communication for Development (C4D)

A people centred concept that uses communication tools and activities to support social and behaviour change in a meaningful and sustained may. Communication for Development is used to understand the context and people’s knowledge, attitudes and practices surrounding an issue. Communication for Development helps tackle issues by developing empowering messaging tools.

Communication analysis

An analysis of media consumption of the target audience that helps inform the platforms and specific messaging to best reach that audience.

Community media

Refers to all types of media that are created and controlled by a community. This community can be tied together geographically or by social, cultural, ethnic or religious factors. Community media is suited for narrow target audiences

Creative brief

Usually a document created after initial research. This document serves as the basic guide for the project at hand. It should include details such as the target audience, communication objectives, key messages and content, call(s) to action, guidelines, tone and genre.


A process that aims to develop the capacity of individuals or groups to make choices, which lead to a desired outcome.


Measures how well an activity achieves its desired outcome. Evaluation uses a wide variety of both quantitative and qualitative methods, providing comprehensive information about what is taking place, why, and whether it is appropriate or not, and to provide guidance for future directions.


The act of taking advantage of something or someone, in particular the act of taking unjust advantage of another for one’s own benefit (e.g. sexual exploitation, forced labour or services, slavery or practices similar to slavery, servitude or the removal of organs).

Focus group discussion (FGD)

A qualitative research method whereby a group of people that share similar characteristics are brought together and asked questions about a specific topic.

Human trafficking

According to the Palermo protocol, human trafficking is the “recruitment, transportation, transfer, harbouring or receipt of persons, by means of threat or use of force or other forms of coercion, of abduction, of fraud, of deception, of the abuse of power or of a position of vulnerability or of the giving or receiving of payments or benefits to achieve the consent of a person having control over another person, for the purpose of exploitation” (1UNODC. Human Trafficking, Available from: )


Those who have the ability to impact the behaviours of others. This may include family members, friends, teachers, government officials, community and religious leaders.

Irregular migration

Entering, remaining or working in a country without possessing the legal documents (such as a passport, visa or work permit) required under the local immigration regulations or entering a country with fake documents.

Mass media

Any means of communication, such as television, newspaper, radio, etc., that reaches a large-scale or mass audience.


Generally involves tracking progress with respect to previously identified plans or objectives, using data easily captured and measured on an ongoing basis. Monitoring tracks key elements of an activity on a regular basis so that adjustments can be made to the activity during implementation.

Monitoring and Evaluation (M&E)

The process of overseeing and assessing the progress (or lack thereof) of a project and if it is achieving the desired results both on a financial and operational basis.

Migration facilitators

The people who help enable (regular or irregular) migration. This may include brokers, recruitment agencies, resource centre staff, border officials and transportation operators.

Most significant change stories

This is a structured process for generating and selecting stories of change that identify what different individuals and groups see as the most important outcomes or impacts. Ask people in a community in which an intervention has been introduced: “What has changed in this community within the last XX months?” The purpose is to judge how people perceive the intervention in comparison to all the other events in their lives. These stories of most significant change are then revealed in in-depth discussion groups to determine the value of the changes reported. This technique helps to capture the effectiveness of a project.

Non-Governmental Organization (NGO)

Also sometimes referred to as Non-profit Organization, is usually associated with organizations from the public sector, not private.

Outcome mapping

This is a tool for planning the monitoring and evaluation of development projects. Trying to predict the outcomes from a project helps assess the results of a project’s activities downstream. Mapping also helps identify the intended target, the intended changes and the strategies that should be used to accomplish the goal.

Participatory M&E

A form of M&E that involves the stakeholders by integrating them into the monitoring and evaluation of a project’s content, implementation and outcome. Stakeholders are invited to help identify corrective measures for any potential problems recognized in the project.


Political, Economic, Social, Technological, Legal and Environmental (PESTLE) factors (positive factors and barriers related to the desired behaviour change) that are taken into account when carrying out a project.

Primary audience

Also referred to as a target audience, this is the group of people whose behaviour the project aims to change.

Regular migration

As opposed to irregular migration, regular migration involves entering, remaining or working in a country with all the legal documents (such as a passport, visa or work permit) required under the local immigration regulations.

Safe migration

This involves regular migration to another country with all the proper documentation (including passports and necessary visas). Safe migration also means being informed about a new job, new area, checking recruitment agencies for proper licensing and having a legal contract before migrating. Preparing for emergencies and holding copies of legal documents are also considered practices of safe migration.

Secondary audience

The formal (and informal) social networks and social support systems that can most influence the primary audience’s behaviour, including family, friends, peers and co-workers.


Specific, Measurable, Achievable, Relevant, Time-bound (SMART) is a criteria applied to activities or outcomes of development projects. The objective of applying SMART criteria is to best ensure that each activity contributes to the changing or developing of behaviours.

Social Ecological Model (SEM)

A theory-based framework used for understanding the various personal and environmental factors that determine one’s behaviour. SEM focuses on the complex interplay between individual, interpersonal, community and societal factors, and how these factors influence each other.


Any individual, group, agency, or organization that has a real or potential interest in a project, and who could negatively or positively influence or be affected by the project directly or indirectly.

Target audience

A particular group whose behaviour a project wants to change; also referred to as primary audience.

Tertiary audience

The groups whose actions indirectly help or hinder the behaviours of the primary and secondary audiences. The actions of tertiary participants reflect the broader social, cultural and political factors that create an enabling environment to sustain desired behaviour change. These might include politicians and government representatives.

Trafficking in Persons (TIP)

See human trafficking for definition